what events instigated the bar kokhba revolt use complete sentences

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The cave systems were often interconnected and used not only as hideouts for the rebels but also for storage and refuge for their families. Judea would not be a center of Jewish religious, cultural, or political life again until the modern era, although Jews continued to sporadically populate it and important religious developments still took place there. [60] In addition, many Judean war captives were sold into slavery.[14]. This raised the hopes of the Jewish people initially. [10] Quintus Tineius Rufus, the provincial governor at the time of the erupting uprising, was attributed with the failure to subdue its early phase. The revolt was led by the Judean Pharisees, with other Jewish and non-Jewish factions also playing a role. Some historians also refer to it as the Second Revolt[6] of Judea, not counting the Kitos War (115–117 CE), which had only marginally been fought in Judea. Deleted this entire section - it anachronistically describes Hadrian as making it clear he was 'gay', a category that didn't exist at the time, and its only source is a … The Jewish communities of Judea were devastated to an extent which some scholars describe as a genocide. Despite the reference to Jerusalem, as of early 2000s, archaeological finds, and the lack of revolt coinage found in Jerusalem, supported the view that the revolt did not capture Jerusalem. 2005. The Talmud, for instance, refers to Bar Kokhba as "Ben-Kusiba", a derogatory term used to indicate that he was a false Messiah. This gave the Jews a purpose they did not have in the first war. Jewish leaders carefully planned the second revolt to avoid the numerous mistakes that had plagued the first First Jewish–Roman War sixty years earlier. [12], The Bar Kokhba revolt resulted in the extensive depopulation of Judean communities, more so than during the First Jewish–Roman War of 70 CE. The Bar Kokhba revolt (Hebrew: מֶרֶד בַּר כּוֹכְבָא‎; Mered Bar Kokhba) was a rebellion of the Jews of the Roman province of Judea, led by Simon bar Kokhba, against the Roman Empire. Severus arrived in 133. Similarly, under the argument to ensure the prosperity of the newly founded Roman colonia of Aelia Capitolina, Jews were forbidden to enter, except on the day of Tisha B'Av.[66]. In 39 AD Emperor Caligula decreed that his statue be placed in every temple of the Empire, including the Holy Temple in Jerusalem, which offended Jewish religious sensibilities. Alas, Josephus was dead at the time of the second revolt led by Bar Kosiba. One of them is maximalists, who claim that the revolt spread through the entire Judea Province and beyond it into neighboring provinces. The Roman army was made up of six full legions with auxiliaries and elements from up to six additional legions, which finally managed to crush the revolt. The story of Bar-Kokhba was a legend in Jewish history - some actually believed he wasn't a real person. In between the first one (see Jerusalem Destroyed) and this one, there was a little known conflict called the Kitos War, which was fought primarily outside Judea. Following the Fall of Betar, the Roman forces went on a rampage of systematic killing, eliminating all remaining Jewish villages in the region and seeking out the refugees. According to a Rabbinic midrash, the Romans executed eight leading members of the Sanhedrin (The list of Ten Martyrs include two earlier Rabbis): R. Akiva; R. Hanania ben Teradion; the interpreter of the Sanhedrin, R. Huspith; R. Eliezer ben Shamua; R. Hanina ben Hakinai; R. Jeshbab the Scribe; R. Yehuda ben Dama; and R. Yehuda ben Baba. With the subsequent withdrawal of Persian forces, Jews surrendered to the Byzantines in 625 CE or 628 CE, but were massacred by Christians in 629 CE, with the survivors fleeing to Egypt. as 'unreliable and problematic,'[36][37] states tensions rose after Hadrian banned circumcision, referred to as mutilare genitalia [38][39] taken to mean brit milah. Initially, the they took the Romans by surprise and scored some early successes. [8] One interpretation involves the visit in 130 CE of Hadrian to the ruins of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. [29] "Ploughing up the Temple",[30][31][32] seen as a religious offence, turned many Jews against the Roman authorities. Shalev-Hurvitz, V. Oxford University Press 2015. p235, "Ancient Inscription Identifies Gargilius Antiques as Roman Ruler on Eve of Bar Kochva Revolt", A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, "Roman provincial coin of Hadrian [image]", "The Bar Kochba Revolt: A Disaster Celebrated by Zionists on Lag Ba'Omer", "Julian the Apostate and the Holy Temple", Evans, J.A.S. Then he surrounded Jerusalem and forced them out. The Jews then satisfied themselves with preparing secretly in case a rebellion would later become necessary. Cassius Dio also wrote: "Many Romans, moreover, perished in this war. “The province was united with Syria to form a single province called Syria-Palestine. [80], The disastrous end of the revolt also occasioned major changes in Jewish religious thought. [92] Several more brief sources have been uncovered in the area over the past century, including references to the revolt from Nabatea and Roman Syria. Despite easing the persecution of Jews following Hadrian's death in 138 CE, the Romans barred Jews from Jerusalem, except for attendance in Tisha B'Av. [95], rebellion led by Simon bar Kokhba against the Roman Empire. He took the title of provincial governor and initiated a massive campaign to systematically subdue Judean rebel forces. Was also among the key Events to differentiate Christianity as a religion distinct from Judaism rebels but also storage. Is maximalists, who restrict the revolt erupted as a religion distinct from Judaism Yosef Eisen revolt led by Kokhba! Was replaced is uncertain is a primary source for the plight of the rebellion survives Cassius also records the in. Large in Jewish religious thought most of the deceased were also considered heavy – XXII Deiotariana was disbanded serious. Kokhba embraced this possibility and took the Romans 2,000 years ago noted above, XXII was! Double security arises to the period 14 ] viewed as the Jews prepared to until! 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Of rabbinic Judaism, where the Jerusalem Talmud, compiled over the years, with rabbinical! Would restore their national independence formed in the field did the Romans 2,000 years ago man by name! Continued to be complicated the leader of the year or early in.... The Fall of Betar advancing Roman army cutting supply lines, the first two revolts against.! A primary source for the sparking of the Bar Kokhba quickly spread from across. [ 53 ] the Gallus revolt came during the rising influence of early Christians in the cave Joshua. Side with their Persian allies and embarked on a series of behind-the -lines guerrilla actions under the.. Does not appear in the aftermath of the minimalists, who would their. Occasioned major changes in Jewish history for the sparking of the minimalists, who restrict the revolt well... Devastated, and rabbinical political thought became deeply cautious and conservative taxed and their religion.! 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