cartilage types and functions

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This causes it to heal very slowly. So, you can find hyaline cartilage in the larynx and trachea in the throat portion of the body, and then also in all of the joints where the surfaces of bones are articulating each other. Cartilage is a type of connective tissue found in the body. It has a capacity for rapid interstitial and appositional growth in young and growing tissues. Three types of cartilage(hyaline cartilage, white fibrocartilage, and yellow elastic cartilage) can be distinguished on the basis of the composition and structure of their extracellular matrices, but many features of the cells and matrix are common to all three types, and these features will be considered first. This smooth, transparent, glassy type of cartilage coats the ends … This cartilage is of three types as. Articular cartilage is a physiologically non-self-renewing avascular tissue with a singular cell type, the chondrocyte, which functions as the load-bearing surface of the arthrodial joint. Cartilage is a non-vascular type of supporting connective tissue that is found throughout the body . non-specialized, connective tissue. In all cases, developing cartilage is surrounded by condensed mesenchyme, which differentiates into a bilaminar perichondrium. – Chondrocytes-  These chondrocytes produce large amounts of extracellular matrix composed of collagen fibers, proteoglycan, and elastin fibers. Cartilage types: Images of microscopic views of the different types of cartilage: elastic, hyaline, and fibrous. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Hey, This is Drishti Sharma, pursuing BSc. Last reviewed: August 31, 2020 Cartilage is a pliant, load-bearing connective tissue, covered by a fibrous perichondrium except at its junctions with bones and over the articular surfaces of synovial joints. They are soon separated by a thin septum of the secreted matrix, which thickens and further separates the daughter cells. The first type is called hyaline cartilage. These are relatively soft and elastic or flexible. Your email address will not be published. The matrix is mostly comprised of collagen and, in some cases, elastic fibers, embedded in a highly hydrated proteoglycan gel. Moreover, cartilage has a very slow turnover and is difficult to repair due to the fact that cartilage tissue is avascular (and also aneural). There are several diseases and processes that can affect cartilage. It owes its flexibility and toughness to the fibrous tissue and its elasticity to the cartilaginous tissue. An essential feature of the cartilage is that it has no blood vessels. 2021 There are 3 types of cartilage, namely Fibrocartilage, Hyaline and elastic cartilage. These cells have generally straight outlines where they are in contact with each other, with the rest of their circumference rounded. Cartilage. Cartilage has limited reparative capacities for a number of reasons: Therefore, the standard treatments often involve total joint replacements (arthroplasty) or clever bioengineering techniques to regenerate articular cartilage through scaffolding and stem cell engineering. Three types of cartilage(hyaline cartilage, white fibrocartilage, and yellow elastic cartilage) can be distinguished on the basis of the composition and structure of their extracellular matrices, but many features of the cells and matrix are c… Cartilage – Introduction, Structure, Formation And Types Of Cartilage, Collagen type II is found in the notochord, the nucleus pulposus of an intervertebral disc, the vitreous body. Understanding knee cartilage types “Knee injuries are an area of focus for me, so I get questions about cartilage all the time,” says sports medicine surgeon Dr. Jack Skendzel. Hyaline cartilage, the most abundant type of cartilage, plays a supportive role and assists in movement. It is a different form of connective tissue. Three α chains intertwine into a triple helix, forming a procollagen molecule. Bone tissue Kim Bengochea, Regis University, Denver, Author: Embryonic cartilage either remains as cartilage or provides a substructure for endochondral ossification, meaning it also functions as a template for the rapid growth and development of the musculoskeletal system . These fibers form bundles that appear dark under a microscope. The remodeling of cartilage is predominantly affected by changes and rearrangements of the collagen matrix, which responds to tensile and compressive forces experienced by the cartilage. due to overuse or traumatic injury during athletics). Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints and nerves. Examples of tubes include the cricoid cartilage and carina of the trachea, the torus tubarius at the opening of the auditory tube, and the auricle/pinna of the ear. Your email address will not be published. Articular cartilage is specifically the smooth, white tissue covering the ends of bones where they come together to form joints. When a chondroblast divides, its descendants temporarily occupy the same chondroitin. There are … There are no blood vessels in cartilage to supply the chondrocytes with nutrients. Effectively, water is held in place by proteoglycans, which are themselves held in place by the collagen network. Other medications aim to specifically inhibit inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, which helps drive inflammation in RA. Embryonic cartilage either remains as cartilage or provides a substructure for endochondral ossification, meaning it also functions as a template for the rapid growth and … Grounded on academic literature and research, validated by experts, and trusted by more than 1 million users. They consist of translucent protoplasm in which fine interlacing filaments and minute granules are sometimes present. This causes it to heal very slowly. Apposition is thought to be most prevalent in mature cartilages, but interstitial growth must persist for long periods in growth-plate cartilage.  It is found in the epiglottis (part of the larynx) and the pinnae (the external ear flaps of many mammals, including humans). Skeletal system – Introduction & functions of the skeletal system, KIDNEYS – Location, Size, Structure, Function and Organs Associated with kidneys, Microscopic Structure Of Skeleton Muscles, Sensory System-Introduction, Organs and Functions, The Urinary System-Introduction,Functions and Anatomy, Nervous system-Introduction, Types, and Function, Human Reproductive system- Formation of Gametes, Organs Overview and Function, Respiratory System – Introduction, Parts & Functions, Muscular system – Types of muscles, characteristics & functions. This results in “bone against bone” grinding within the joint that leads to reduced range of movement, loss of proprioception, and pain. composed of a delicate network of fine type II collagen fibrils, type IX collagen, and proteoglycan core protein. Look at the eMicroscope of a section of cartilage on the left. It has lots of collagen fibers (Type I and Type II), and it tends to grade into the dense tendon and ligament tissue. – a) Hyaline cartilage. Cartilage is an avascular, supporting and articular skeletal tissue consisting of cells in an extracellular matrix that may or may not mineralise depending on cartilage type, species or group of organisms; many invertebrates have cartilage but it never mineralises. It is the only type of cartilage that contains type I collagen in addition to the normal type II. Oftentimes, many of these medications are used in combination. The collagen network varies in different types of cartilage and with age. Hyaline cartilage has widely dispersed fine collagen fibres (type II), which strengthen it. RA frequently affects wrists, fingers, hips, knees, feet and ankles on both sides of the body (unlike osteoarthritis). Formed by the process of chondrogenesis, the resulting chondrocytes are capable of producing large amounts of collagenous extracellular matrix and ground substance, which together form cartilage itself. The cartilage lines the ear lobe, epiglottis and larynx. It works just like a cushion in the joints. • There are three types of cartilage: hyaline, fibrous, and elastic cartilage. In the embryo, bones form first as hyaline cartilage before ossifying as development progresses. In yet other sites, the matrix of early cellular cartilage is permeated first by anastomosing oxytalan fibers, and later by elastin fibers. Functions of Cartilage Cartilage is the only tissue that never stops growing! It has a capacity for rapid interstitial and appositional growth in young and growing tissues. As a person ages, this cartilage can wear away, leading to joint pain and swelling that is sometimes only alleviated by surgery. Healthy articular cartilage allows joints to move and glide over each other with very little friction, but is subject to damage and injury, as well as normal wear and tear. It is a progressive and chronic autoimmune disease that triggers inflammation and results in damage to joint tissue, nearby bone and other organs, therefore indirectly affecting cartilage. The length of collagen fibrils and fibers in cartilage is unknown, but even relatively short fibrils can reinforce the matrix by interacting physically and chemically with each other and with other matrix constituents including proteoglycans (Hukins and Aspden 1985), reflecting the fact that the term collagen means ‘glue maker’. A preponderance of fixed negative charges on the surface of GAGs strongly attracts polarized water molecules, causing wet cartilage to swell until restricted by tension in the collagen network, or by external loading. This type of cartilage contains elastic fiber networks and collagen fibers. Cartilage, connective tissue forming the mammalian embryonic skeleton prior to bone formation and persisting in parts of the human skeleton into adulthood. Like other types of cartilage, it also consists of chondrocytes and ECM. The deep, basal layer is found next, which consists of type II collagen that is perpendicular to the joint and crosses the tidemark. Large proteoglycan molecules have numerous side chains of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), carbohydrates with remarkable water-binding properties. More powerful immune system suppressing agents such as methotrexate and cyclosporine are sometimes used. This continuing process adds additional surface, while the entrapped cells participate in interstitial growth. Read more. At some sites, continued secretion of matrix separates the cells, producing typical hyaline cartilage. Cartilages are made up of specialized cells known as chondrocytes. Each cell differentiates into a chondroblast as it secretes a basophilic halo of the matrix, In the embryo , it provides support and is a precursor to bone . Additionally, a glycoprotein known as lubricin that is abundant in the superficial layer of cartilage and synovial fluid plays a major role in bio-lubrication and wear protection of cartilage. The calcified zone of the articular cartilage serves to bind the articular cartilage to the bone tissue by anchoring the collagen fibrils of the deep zone of the cartilage to the subchondral bone. Formed by the process of chondrogenesis, the resulting chondrocytes are capable of producing large amounts of collagenous extracellular matrix … This article will explain the structure, composition and formation of this structure. Cartilage is not innervated and therefore relies on diffusion to obtain nutrients. Medical Anatomy Notes | Human Anatomy Notes. Timely treatment of cartilage damage is therefore essential. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. It is the most widespread cartilage type and, in adults, it forms the articular surfaces of long bones, the rib tips, the rings of the trachea, and parts of the skull. Cartilage is not hard just like bone. Cartilage is usually formed in embryonic mesenchyme. The collagen of articular cartilage is primarily type II (90–95%), with small contributions from types IX and XI. It is histologically similar to hyaline cartilage but contains many yellow elastic fibers lying in a solid matrix. Its growth is not usually quantified by an increase in size or mass of the cartilage itself, but instead by its biomechanical properties. • The main cell types in cartilage are chondrocytes, the ground substance is chondroitin sulfate, and the fibrous sheath is called perichondrium. Learning anatomy is a massive undertaking, and we're here to help you pass with flying colours. Chondrocytes lie between the fibers. Collagen type II is found in the notochord, the nucleus pulposus of an intervertebral disc, the vitreous body of the eye, and the primary corneal stroma. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Cartilage grows by interstitial and appositional mechanisms. Read more. Achondroplasia is an autosomal dominant disease usually related to a mutation in the FGFR3 gene, which causes abnormal endochondral ossification to convert cartilage to bone, and results in dwarfism. Mesenchymal cells proliferate and become tightly packed; the shape of their condensation foreshadows that of the future cartilage. It is made up of cells called chondrocytes which are embedded in a matrix of collagen and elastic fibers. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Cartilage proteoglycans are similar to those found in general, i.e. Embedded in this are one or two round nuclei with the usual intranuclear network. Tumors made up of cartilage tissue can also occur, but can be either benign or malignant in nature. Cartilage is not innervated and therefore relies on diffusion to obtain nutrients. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that they have a characteristic cross-banding (65 nm periodicity) and are interwoven to create a three-dimensional meshwork. The main cell types in cartilage are chondrocytes, the ground substance is chondroitin sulfate, and the fibrous sheath is called perichondrium. Cartilage is a flexible connective tissue found in multiple areas of the body, including joints, the ear and nose, and intervertebral discs. Interstitial growth is the result of continued mitosis of early chondroblasts throughout the tissue mass and is obvious only in young cartilage, where the plasticity of the matrix permits continued expansion. • Cartilage is a connective tissue found in various parts of the adult skeleton including all joints between bones and structures which is deformable as well as strong e.g. Consequently, the ECM functions to respond to the tensile, shear, and compressive forces that are experienced by cartilage during mechanical use such as normal gait or weight-bearing movements. The fibrocartilage is a tough and strong but resilient tissue. The cells of the outer layer become fibroblasts and secrete a dense collagenous matrix lined externally by vascular mesenchyme. Costochondritis is a cause of chest pain resulting from inflammation of cartilage connecting the ribs to the sternum. These properties allow cartilage to serve as a support structure for holding tubes open or for proper locomotion. The main cell types in cartilage are chondrocytes, the ground substance is chondroitin sulfate, and the fibrous sheath is called perichondriu… Newly formed chondroblasts secrete matrix around themselves, creating superficial lacunae beneath the perichondrium. Elastic Cartilage – This type of cartilage provides higher flexibility and thus known as elastic cartilage. 1. One of the main functions of this type of cartilage is to enable the bones in the joints to move and glide over each other without friction. 3. The layers of articular cartilage are defined by zones. While these tumors usually appear in bone, and rarely in pre-existing cartilage, they can invade cartilage. Start studying Cartilage: Types, Functions, Locations, Slides. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a disease process where the body’s immune system attacks synovial cells, and therefore the lining of joint capsules, which is a tough membrane that encloses joints. Benign tumors are called chondromas, and the malignant tumors are called chondrosarcomas. Required fields are marked *. This forms 90% of collagen in the body; functions to resist tension and stretching; found in the dermis, tendons, ligaments, fibrocartilage, bones, and fascia Type II Collagen Is the main fiber type in hyaline and elastic cartilage and functions to resist tensile strain that occurs when cartilage is compressed T 2. The function of articular cartilage is dependent on the molecular composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which consists mainly of proteoglycans and collagen. In this way, cartilage develops a compressive turgor that enables it to distribute loading evenly on to the subchondral bone, rather like a water bed. They are found on many joint surfaces. “The knee is the largest joint in the body, and relies on two knee cartilage types to function effectively: fibrocartilage and articular cartilage. Elastic cartilage has the most ECM; hyaline a middle amount; and fibrous cartilage has the least amount of ECM. While more rigid and less flexible than muscle, cartilage is not as stiff as bone. Collagen type II fibrils are often less than 50 nm in diameter and are too small to be seen by light microscopy. The elasticity and flexibility of cartilage helps to maintain change of position of ear lobe during sleep. c) fibrocartilage. “I would honestly say that Kenhub cut my study time in half.” Alice Ferng B.S., MD, PhD Learn more about the structure and function of cartilage. Articular cartilage damage worsens over time and, if left untreated, leads to arthritis of the entire joint. Reading time: 8 minutes. All rights reserved. Appositional growth is the result of the continued proliferation of the cells that form the internal, chondrogenic layer of the perichondrium. Fibrocartilage. Each type has varying amounts of elastin and collagen. Reviewer: While osteoarthritis is a disease that affects the whole joint, one of the most affected tissues is the articular cartilage, which is thinned or completely worn away. Chondrogenesis is the process by which cartilage is formed from condensed mesenchymal cells expressing collagen I, III and V. This process also involves differentiation of chondroprogenitor cells secreting molecules (aggrecan and type II, IX and XI collagen) that form the extracellular matrix. Relatively little is known about the factors that determine the overall shape of cartilage structures. Hyaline cartilage, the most abundant type of cartilage, plays a supportive role and assists in movement. Treatment often involves various anti-inflammatory medications, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like aspirin or ibuprofen, or other COX inhibitors for symptomatic relief. Matrix Cartilage is a strong, flexible type of connective tissue found within a body. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Other constituents of cartilage include dissolved salts, non-collagenous proteins, and glycoproteins. Cartilage is a pliant, load-bearing connective tissue, covered by a fibrous perichondrium except at its junctions with bones and over the articular surfaces of synovial joints. Instead of round chondrocytes, the superficial layer contains flattened chondrocytes, in addition to condensed collagen fibers and spare proteoglycans. and grab your free ultimate anatomy study guide! It is composed of a dense network of collagen fibers embedded in a gelatinous ground substance. Brian K. Hall, in Bones and Cartilage (Second Edition), 2015. Kenhub. Articular cartilage functions as a shock absorber and also reduces friction between bones where they meet at joints. The most common GAG side chains in cartilage are chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate. b) Elastic cartilage. I also engage myself in teaching which enhances my creativity and makes me more expressible. Our engaging videos, interactive quizzes, in-depth articles and HD atlas are here to get you top results faster. Chondrocytes are responsible for producing large quantities of collagenous extracellular matrix and ground substance that is rich in proteoglycans and elastin fibers. Finally, there is most superficial layer, also known as the tangential zone. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); It is weaker than bone, but it is flexible and can recover quickly. It is important to note for clinical purposes that the division of cells within cartilage is a very slow process, and cartilage growth consists of immature cartilage developing into a more mature state. It is mostly found in the infant skeleton which replaced by bone during growth. Articular cartilage is found only in diarthroidal joints (synovial joints), and is comprised of hyaline cartilage – a particularly smooth type of cartilage which allows for easy articulation, increased weight distribution, and shock absorption. Treatment involves arthroplasty and chondroitin sulfate or glucosamine sulfate supplements. Finally, treatment can also involve surgery or more progressive gene therapy drugs. The collagen (mainly type II), acts to constrain the proteoglycans and helps it hold its structure. It has a perichondrium, and it is the weakest of the three types of cartilage. It contains no nerves or blood vessels, and its structure is relatively simple. This zone is the thickest layer of round chondrocytes, with abundant proteoglycan content. Fibrocartilage is found in the pubic symphysis, the annulus fibrosus of intervertebral discs, menisci, and the temporal-mandibular joint. The chondroblasts that are caught in the matrix are called chondrocytes, and are the main type of specialized cells found in cartilage. The cells of the inner layer contain differentiated, but mainly resting chondroblasts or prechondroblasts. White fibrocartilage consists of a mixture of white fibrous tissue and cartilaginous tissue in various proportions. It is covered externally by a fibrous membrane, called the perichondrium, except at the articular ends of bones; it also occurs under the skin (for instance, ears and nose). Jerome Goffin The intermediate zone is adjacent to the basal layer, with an oblique or random organization of type II collagen. Cartilage is a group of tissues produced by chondrocytes that is characterized by a relative lack of vascularity and consists of cells surrounded by a specialized extracellular matrix composed predominantly of type II collagen and proteoglycan, often in the form of proteoglycan aggregate. More typical of cartilage is collagen type II, which forms very thin fibrils dispersed between the proteoglycan molecules so that they do not clump together to form larger fibers. This basal layer also contains the highest concentration of proteoglycans, and round chondrocytes in this layer are arranged in columns. Copyright © Structure of Hyaline Cartilage From the cartilaginous tissue a kind of hard semi-transparent organic substance is secreted which is known as *Chondrin*. Due to the lack of blood vessels, cartilage cannot heal itself. It is predominately collagen (yet with few collagen fibers), and its name refers to its glassy appearance. Since osteoarthritis affects the joints exposed to the highest stress (knees, elbows, and hips), this condition is considered less of a disease and is rather regarded as a result of “wear and tear”. Costal cartilages that connect the ventral ends of the ribs to the sternum increases elasticity of the chest wall –  There are two types of which are the following: – Chondroblast – It is a type of cell that develops into a chondrocyte or cartilage cell. As mentioned before, the ECM is paramount in opposing shear, tensile, and compressive forces normally. They give elastic cartilage great flexibility so it can withstand repeated bending. If a thin slice of cartilage is examined under the microscope, it will be found to consist of cells of a rounded or bluntly angular form, lying in groups of two or more in a granular or almost homogeneous matrix. Starting from the subchondral bone, there is a tidemark that is deep to the basal layer and separates true articular cartilage from the deeper cartilage, which is a remnant of cartilage anlage from longitudinal growth during childhood. Elastic cartilage functions to provide support and maintain the shape of flexible body parts like our ears and larynx. Skeletal system – Introduction & functions of skeletal system. Cartilage is a robust and viscoelastic connective tissue that can be found in joints between bones, the rib cage, intervertebral discs, the ear, and the nose. The principal protein is elastin. They also become rounded, with prominent round or oval nuclei and a low cytoplasm: nucleus ratio. These cells are found solitary or in pairs and are densely scattered out within the matrix. Register now Hyaline cartilage is the most abundant type of cartilage in the body. RA progresses normally from various small to larger joints of the body, and damage to hands and feet is more likely to develop before damage to larger joints such as the hips or knees. There are three types of cartilage: Elastic cartilage (yellow cartilage) – the most springy and supple type of cartilage. There are three major types of cartilage: hyaline, fibro, and elastic cartilage. Introduction to the musculoskeletal system, chondrocytes are bound in lacunae and cannot migrate to damaged areas, cartilage does not have a blood supply so deposition of new ECM is very slow, damaged hyaline cartilage is often replaced by fibrocartilage scar tissue with different biomechanical properties, Articular cartilage of the elbow (sagittal view) - Paul Kim. When an embryo is developing, cartilage is the precursor to bone. On account of being avascular (lacking blood supply), articular cartilage can get damaged due to the normal wear and tear that occurs with age or an injury. Cartilage is a flexible connective tissue that differs from bone in several ways; it is avascular and its microarchitecture is less organized than bone. This zone is also the only zone where articular cartilage progenitor cells have been identified. 3–5 Under electron microscopy, collagen is noted to have a cross-banded fibrillar structure. Therefore, when this ECM is affected, it can lead to damage or injury. I love to write and share my words with the world. This can happen through physical mechanical forces, where excessive friction and applied forces wear down the cartilage (e.g. Damage or injury can also happen through pathologic states, where ossification or breakdown of cartilage occurs due to dysfunction of cartilage-specific cells or synovial cells, or imbalances in the microenvironment surrounding the cartilage. The most common proteoglycan molecule, aggrecan, form huge molecular aggregates with other proteoglycans and with hyaluronan. Characteristic cross-banding ( 65 nm periodicity ) and are too small to be most in. Wrists, fingers, hips, knees, feet and ankles on sides... 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